Education plays an important role in the development of the thinking world of future generations. It is the biggest investment that societies make for the future. Today, the education systems of the states that manage information and technology are of high quality. Therefore, the decisions taken on education are not determined by day-to-day policies. Education policies have been in a scientific and consistent framework. Education policies can be examined under two headings as state and government policies. Government policies differ from government to government, while state policies are long-term. educational policies implemented in Turkey has undergone many changes since the past times. Therefore, it could not be a state policy, it remained as a government policy.
Republican Era Education Policies
During the War of Independence, many teachers and students went to the front because of the war. A new era had begun with the signing of the Mondros Armistice Agreement. The first step taken in the field of education in this period was the Law of Tevhidi Tedrisat, enacted in 1924. Education reforms were carried out with this law. These reforms; It was the transition to mixed education, the closure of the madrasahs and the obligatory primary education. Latin letters were also adopted in this period. Atatürk gave lectures to the public at the blackboard with the title of “Head Teacher”.
Another step taken during this period was the opening of village institutes. Village institutes aiming to develop the villagers in terms of economy and education also aimed to train teachers for the villages. But falling victim to the interests of the bourgeoisie, it was closed in 1952. Until 1993, 49 government education policies, which were changed in each government period, were implemented. These education policies generally have the same contents. Democratization, equality and stability issues in education were emphasized. In order to ensure equality in education, 8-year uninterrupted primary education was implemented with the 1997-1998 academic year. With this model, school districts have been created so that children of primary school age are not deprived of education. With a strict policy, school-age children were determined to which schools they would attend, and children from busy regions were transported to schools with fewer students.
21st Century Education Policies
With the effect of development and change in the world in the new century, political practices in accordance with the world trend in education have been made. Firstly, studies started in 2001 on a contemporary teacher profile suitable for the 21st century. The teacher profile, supported by various suggestions and questionnaires, was determined. In 2011, with the same methods, contemporary student profile was targeted and steps were taken in this regard. Surveys and suggestions were presented on what students can participate in, such as thinking and ways of working, working tools, and integration to the world.
Within the scope of the principle of equality in education, compulsory education, which was 8 years before, was increased to 12 years with the 4 + 4 + 4 education system in the 2012-2013 period. While these policies were implemented, curriculum updates were also carried out. In this century of changing needs, studies for a curriculum suitable for needs started in 2005 and ended in 2016-2017. With the changing curriculum, it is aimed to provide students with communication in mother tongue and foreign language, competence in mathematics and technology, learning to learn, taking initiative and entrepreneurship, social and public competences, cultural awareness and expression skills.
With the project named FATİH (Movement for Increasing Opportunities and Improving Technology), which started to be implemented in 2012, it is aimed to provide equal opportunities in education and to improve technology in schools. Within the scope of this project, tablet computers were provided to students and teachers, technology and internet usage were increased in education with the system called EBA portal. Teachers can share lecture notes, assignments and individual learning materials for their students on the EBA portal. In addition, contents that will appeal to the visual and auditory intelligence of the students are used in the lecture with the smart boards in every classroom in schools, and these contents ensure that the students are not distracted on the lesson. At the same time, with this project, conscious and safe internet use was provided to students.